was Calum's and Jamie's five times great grandfather.
a military man for his whole life, serving with the Royal Regiment, aka the Royal Scots or 1st Regiment of Foot. It is known
he was born in County Fermanagh in 1797, but his parents' names have not yet been determined. In May 2020 a DNA
connection was flagged up with Scottish based genealogist Chris Halliday on FamilyTreeDNA, with halliday being the only common
surname. This link suggested 47cm of shared DNA, with half of that located in two chunks on chromosomes 5 and 6, at 16.89cM
and 6.17cM. Chris has confirmed his ancestors in the late 18th century were based in Dumfriesshire, suggesting an earlier
ancestral origin for William's line in this Scottish county.
record of his death in 1831 (see later), we know that William Alexander Halliday enlisted with the regiment on December 3rd 1819. William is noted many years earlier in folio WO25/309 at the National Archives as having been born
in Enniskillen, County Fermanagh, Ireland, in 1797, where he had previously worked as a servant before joining the British
Army. He attested for the 1st Battalion of the 1st Regiment of Foot at the age of 22 in December 1819, at Dublin City, at
the headquarters of the regiment, and a description of him is given in the register - he was 5 feet and 10 inches in height,
had a pale complexion, and hazel eyes and black hair. He signed up for life, and the register notes that he transferred to
the 2nd Battalion on March 30th 1820.
his transfer, William did not actually join the 2nd Battalion of his regiment until September or October 1820. On arrival
at Trichinopoly (Tamul Nadu,
today known as Tiruchirappalli or Trichy) he was immediately posted to serve as a Private in Captain Robert Dudgeon's
Company. The regimental muster rolls from September - November 1820, held at the National Archives at Kew, show
he had 'transferred from Europe', and that he then remained in this company, which was referred to as the General Company,
until being transferred to the 1st company, under the command of Captain C. S. Hoskins (WO12/1959). He remained in turn with
this company in Trichinopoly until June 1825, with the only notable record being that he was sick and unavailable for the
muster from August 25th - September
24th 1821. In August 1821 the regiment was officially
granted the title The First, or the Royal, Regiment of Foot, by King George IV, as opposed to its former title of the First,
or Royal Scots, Regiment of Foot.
to the book The First, or Royal Regiment of Foot by Richard J. Cannon (source: Google Books), the 2nd Battalion stayed at
Trichonopoly until June 1824, from which it then marched to Madras, staying there
until September. From p.236:
In the mean
time, hostilities had commenced between the British and the Burmese empire; and in September the battalion embarked from Madras
and sailed for Calcutta, where it arrived on the 10th of October. Towards the
end of the year it marched to Barrackpore for the purpose of suppressing a mutiny amongst the Company's native troops at that
place; and after the performance of this painful duty it returned to Calcutta.
this the battalion marched to Rangoon in Burma
on January 15th 1825 to reinforce Brigadier General Archibald Campbell's
men against the Burmese Army. When it arrived the British Army was already pushing further up the Irawaddy
River to take the city of Prome, and
the 2nd battalion acted as reserve. They then pushed through Mophi, Thaboon and Sarrawah (reached on March 2nd), and then
the fort at Donabew, fending off many Burmese attacks along the way (including one mounted on 17 elephants). Only one private
was killed in the whole advance to capture Donabew.
In the record
from July 25th - August 24th 1825, William is now noted as a private at
Chingleput, today known as Chengelpattu or Chengelpat in Tamil Nadu. In the roll from August 24th he was "on duty", and in
the following month from September 25th he was noted as "sick at Madras", a condition
which continued until April 25th 1826. He therefore appears to have missed
much of the action fighting against the Burmese from November 16th following the breakdown of a peace treaty which the Burmese
had found unacceptable. It is not known what the illness was that William suffered from, but with the heavy rains many soldiers
suffered from cholera. The Anglo-Burmese war was briefly paused after the Burmese agreed to a treaty, but as this was not
ratified before January 19th 1826 hostilities soon recommenced. The Burmese
soon surrendered when the Royals were just four days march away from the capital.
period William's pay increased, with the muster roll from February 25th stating he was "Entitled to higher pay of one penny
Indian from 25th September 1824", implying he must have first joined the
army in 1817. Whilst he was ill the company moved from Chingleput to Fortwilliam, and then to Lorreangong (?).
25th - June 24th 1826 the company was stated to be in Prome, now known as Pyay, with William himself stated to be under "command"
at Rangoon (now Yangon), with both places in Burma. The following month though William was again stated to be "sick in Madras",
and from August 25th - September 24th 1825 he was again "sick at Rangoon", a state of health he suffered from there up to
January 24th 1826, in a muster roll recorded at Patanagola. From the end of January to March
24th 1826 William was then "sick at Madras" (WO12/1962). The captaincy
of the company was vacant in April, but was soon taken over by Captain Alexander MacDougall until the end of July, when Captain
John Cross assumed command.
end of September 1826 the company was stated to be in Bangalore, now Bengaluru,
capital of Karnataka. In the next couple of months William met his future wife, Martha Taylor, whom
he married in November. The record has been sourced at the British Library (with thanks to Emma Jolly):
Bangalore 8th Novr
1826 William Halliday of Bangalore Actg Corporal [...] 2nd Bn. Royal Regt. Bachelor and Martha Taylor of the same place widow
were married in this Church by Banns this day by me
(Signed) W. Malkin
This marriage was
solemnized between us
Martha Taylor (her
In the presence
A month after
his marriage, William's company was taken over by Captain J. T. Fletcher, and continued to be based in Bangalore.
In June 1827 command was assumed by Captain Richard Bennett.
On July 19th 1827 William and Martha had their first child, a daughter called Eliza.
She was baptised a couple of weeks later on August 1st, and in this record William is noted as a Corporal. In fact William
is not noted as such until the muster roll from August 25th 1827, where
he was described as one of six holding the rank. He continued in Bangalore as
a Corporal until May 15th 1828, at which point he was demoted, with no
reason given in the rolls.
For the roll
dated for November 1828, a note is given stating that William is now entitled to a higher daily rate of 2d due to 14 years
service - if so, this would mean he attested in 1814. His higher pay rate kicked in from March 29th. In the following month
William joined Captain Edward Lane's company. On October 25th 1829, William and Martha had a son, Alexander, born in Bangalore,
book we then learn that
The 2nd Battalion
remained at Bangalore until July 1830, when it was ordered to Arnee, as a preparatory
measure previous to its embarkation for Europe.
1st 1830 William is found as a private in Captain H. C. Fraser's company, based at Bangalore. From June 1st 1830 he is noted
as "doing duty at Poonamallie", a situation which continued up to the end of the year. From January 1831 William is next found
as a Private at St. Thomas Moual, in H. C. Fraser's company. In this year he again appears to have seen lots of service action,
being noted from April to October as at "command at Madras".
Halliday sadly died whilst sailing back from India towards
Scotland on November
6th 1831. The value of his effects after necessary deductions for debts etc to the company was £4 7s 11d, paid
to his widow Martha (Source: TNA WO12/1967).
It is not
known as yet what became of Martha.
Children of William HALLIDAY and Martha TAYLOR:
born in Bangalore, India, in July
1st August 1827 Eliza Daughter of William Halliday Corporal Royal Regt
and Martha his wife born 19th July 1827 was this day baptized by me
is not yet known what became of Eliza.
b: 25/10/1829 d: 31/1/1866
on Martha TAYLOR:
wife Martha Taylor (maiden name unknown) was the widow of Sergeant J. Taylor, a member of
the same regiment as William, with whom she had previously had a daughter, Emelia, on 10 AUG 1825, at Madras,
St Mary's Church
Madras 22nd August 1825
Emeila Daughter of the late Sergt
J. Taylor of Royal Regt. and Martha his wife born 10th August 1825 was this day baptized by me.
Signed Thomas Lewis, Chaplain
An AncestryDNA match
with a descendant of Emelia, Rebecca Duke, was established in Dec 2019, confirming the connection.
Emelia or Amelia later married a James Hogan,
colour sergeant of the 14th Foot, between 1841 and 1845, with whom she had 9 children. It is not yet known what became of
her mother, Martha Halliday, formerly Taylor, maiden name unknown. (With thanks to Rebecca
Duke and Wendy Hutchinson). Emelia appears to have died in Lancashire at some stage after the 1891 census was recorded.
Alexander William Halliday was Calum's and Jamie's four
times great grandfather.
Alexander had a long and busy military career in both the 1st Battalion
of the 14th Regiment of Foot and the 2nd Battalion of the 2nd Regiment of Foot (the Queen's Royal Regiment), which saw
him fight in the Crimea, journey across Europe and Canada, and ultimately venture to the Caribbean where he would survive
an epidemic but lose his life.
Although in most records he is noted
as Alexander, he is noted in one record as William, and in another as William
Alexander. From a muster roll for the 2nd Foot from Feb/Mar
1866, which recorded his death, we also learn that he had been born in the East Indies, but no date or age is given.
Having married in 1862 he was described as of full age (21 or over),
and so must have been born by 1841 at the latest. In this record his parents were noted as William Alexander Halliday
and Martha Ann. He was in fact born in Bangalore, Madras, born on October 25th 1829 to Corporal
William Halliday and his wife Martha Taylor:
Bangalore 4th Novr 1829 Alexander son of William Halliday Private Royal regiment
and Martha his wife Born 25th Octr 1829 was this day Baptized by me
Sigd Gn Greame, Chaplain
Alexander is first mentioned in the muster roll for the 1st Battalion of the Fourteenth Regiment of
Foot dated April 1st - June 30th 1844. In this he is noted as being a private in the regiment and stated to have been "on
man's pay from March 7th", suggesting he joined as a boy soldier. He was paid 5d per diem, and his regimental number was 2155 (WO12/3161).
The quarterly muster rolls show he remained in Kingston until March 31st 1845 approximately. During this period he was in
hospital for 11 days in September 1844 and again for 28 days in January or February 1845.
The muster roll from April 1st - June 30th 1845 shows that after a brief stint at Laprairie,
Alexander was posted to Quebec, where he remained until mid 1846. The roll from July 1st - September 30th 1846 shows
his transfer to Halifax in Nova Scotia, the document stating that he had sailed for 11 days to get there. He was absent from
the muster, the reason stated being "Band", a description given in every roll thereafter until September 1852.
Between April 1st and June 30th 1847, Alexander spent 27 days at sea sailing for Plymouth in England. Between October
and December he spent 11 days in hospital. Between January and March 1848 he spent a further 7 days in hospital either in
Plymouth or Newport, and is noted as having been paid three days full allowance on a march, and entitled to only one hot meal
on each day whilst doing so. For the first muster in January he was absent, being "on duty". From then until March 1850 Alexander
was based in Newport, Monmouthshire. From October - December he spent 12 days on board a ship, and is noted as having been
on furlough from 20th to 31st December 1848, which was then extended by a further 19 days at the start of January 1849.
From January - March 1849 he is again on board ship for 19 days. From October - December 1849 Alexander was again hospitalised
for 11 days, and again for 8 days in the following muster roll from January-March 1850 (WO12/3166).
From April 1st - June 30th 1850 Alexander is noted as being in Preston and Athlone in Ireland. He was 6 days in hospital
(during the 3rd muster in June) and when on a march had an allowance of 2 days full allowance and four days with a hot meal
only. he remained in Athlone until the musters recorded between April 1st - June 30th 1851. During the period in the town
he spent 10 days in hospital between July 1st - September 30th, and a further 6 between January 1st and March 31st 1851.
From July 1st 1851 the 14th Foot was in Dublin. In the role from July 1st - 30th September, Alexander is stated to be
"Guard mounting" on the 2nd muster. Between January 1st and March 31st 1852 the regiment marched to Limerick. From February
10th - March 7th Alexander received 25 days good conduct pay at 1d per diem, and again on the second muster is noted as "Guard
mounting". From April 1st to June 30th he received a further 91 days good conduct pay, a further 92 days of such pay from
July 1st to September 30th and a further 26 days good conduct pay up to October 26th. On Otober 27th 1852, Alexander was promoted
to the rank of Corporal - the note states "To Corporal 27th Vice Owens pr d 27th October". After his promotion he recived
a further 66 days good conduct pay for the rest of the muster quarter.
Until April 1st - June 30th 1854, Corporal Halliday remained with his battalion in Limerick, now on a daily rate of 3
1/2 d per diem, with the only unusual entry being that he was "convalescent" at some stage in December 1853, during the recording
of that month's muster. On approximately April 23rd, he set sail for Malta, with a note stating that he was entitlted
to "Bar money on home service 24" (WO12/3171). In the 3rd quarter of 1854 he spent 5 days in hospital in Malta.
On December 6th 1854 Alexander was promoted to the rank of Sergeant, before sailing from Malta for the Crimea. The muster
role for January 1st to March 31st 1855 notes he was on board ship for 24 days. In the 2nd muster in February he was absent,
being on Fatigues, and in the 3rd was noted as with the "band" again. He remained at the Crimea until the 2nd quarter of 1856.
From September to October 1855 he spent 12 days in hospital (WO12/3172). For his service in the Crimea, Alexander was awarded
a medal, as noted in the National Archives WO100 medal index.
From April - June 1856 Alexander was noted as moving away from the Crimea back to Malta, having spent 7 days
at sea, 71 on shore and 13 in hospital. From January 1st - December 31st 1857 he received good conduct pay every day.
In February 1858 he was noted as being at St. George's Bay during the muster, whilst in April he was noted as being part of
a "guard of honour" in the first muster for that quarter. At some stage between July and September 1858 Alexander spent 5
days sailing to Cephalonia. In the first quarter of 1859 he spent 5 days in hospital, and on the second 33 days in hospital.
In April he was noted as in the hospital for the muster, and on the 2nd muster in Corfu from May 28th. On June 4th 1859, Sergeant
Alexander Halliday sailed for England, clearly unwell (WO12/3176). From May 28th however, he was attached to the 2nd battalion
of the Queen's Royal Regiment (2nd Foot).
2nd battalion of the Queen's was founded in Colchester, England, in August 1857, and was first commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel
Bruce, formerly of the Highland Light Infantry, and who introduced the secondary regimental march past tune "We'll Gang Nae
Mair to Yon Toun". From
"The Queen's Royal Regiment (West Surrey)" by Jock Haswell, the following information was found on the battalion's movements:
Early in 1859 the 2nd Battalion was warned for service in the Mediterranean
and it went first to Malta and then to Corfu. On the 1859 anniversary of the Glorious First of June, at a 'brilliant and impressive'
parade on the esplanade in front of the Citadel, the battalion received its first Colours from Lady Buller, wife of Sir George
Buller, commanding Her Majesty's Forces in the Ionian Islands. (p.99)
From the notice of his death in the regimental muster rolls (TNA:
WO 12/2093), Alexander was said to have joined the regiment on August 27th 1859. The service digests, held at West Surrey
Archive (QRWS/3/5/1) state that the 2nd battalion arrived in Malta on April 25th 1858 and that "In September 1859 the Battalion was ordered
to hold itself in readiness to Garrison Cephalonia and Zante, relieving the 1st battalion 14th regiment." The
muster rolls from the Queen's in fact provide more detail on Alexander's transfer. His entry states that he was "attached
from 1 Bn 14 Reg warder in Mily Prison Vidos". Another note staters "men of the 14th regt coming out of Mily Prison attchd
for Rationnell only". Amongst the fourteen men were two other sergeants, John Bradford and Patrick Ward. Alexander was then
described as having been invalided to England on June 5th and his pay advanced to him until June 30th.
From the Corfu muster
roll of the Queen's there is no sign of Alexander in the subsequent quarter, though the Depot register in England has yet
to be consulted - he was at the Depot, however, as stated in the entry for October to December 1859 in Cephalonia. This
quarterly return show that Alexander had been demoted to private on his return to England, though on October 19th he was once
again returned to the rank of Sergeant, having spent 30 days at sea rejoining the regiment to which he was now fully attached
Haswell's book provides the following on the
battalion's next movements:
The year 1860 was spent on peaceful garrison
duties in Cephalonia and Zante, while the 1st Battalion was waging war in China (p.99).
The 2nd Battalion spent the bi-centenary year of 1861 in Corfu but there
is no record of any celebrations on the 14th of October (p.105).
1860, Alexander spent 12 days in hospital. In the final quarter of the year the battalion moved to Corfu. The next major entry for Alexander
notes that he had spent May 4th - 6th 1861 in confinement, and had
been demoted to the rank of private, reason unknown, though it was recorded as a "military offence". His surname in the records
is invariably spelt Halliday and Holliday. For his confinement he was charged 1s 6d for 3 days subsistence, but Alexander
was subsequently granted good conduct pay instantly from his release on May 7th, perhaps indicating that his demotion had
been unfortunate and recognised as such by his superiors.
and December 1861 Private Alexander Holliday, as he was recorded, spent four days in hospital on Corfu
(WO12/2088). between April and June 1862 he recieved 36 days good conduct pay at 2d per diem, and a further 55 days good conduct
pay at 3d per diem, the payments having commenced on May 7th.
Telegraph and Sussex Chronicle of June 7th 1862 records that plans were afoot for the 6th regiment at Gibraltar to exchange
places with the 2nd Battalion of the 2nd regiment at Corfu ("The Mediterranean Fleet"). Three weeks later, Alexander
was definitely still on Corfu however, as he was recorded as having married Teresa Mooney there on
June 27th 1862. In the record he was described as a Corporal
in the battalion. The wedding was carried out at the Garrison Church, in a Church of England ceremony performed by the regimental
chaplain Sydney Cluck M.A., and was witnessed by James Crabtree and Catherine Elizabeth Johnston. The record also notes both
of his parents as William Alexander and Martha Ann Halliday (GRO Ionian Civil Registration
Marriages 1818-1864, Corfu Vol 9 p.6 - no year listed in index, but the record itself notes it as 1862).
was in fact still a private though, as noted on the Muster roll for July-September 1862, though it is possible he was 'acting
up' in the role. The same return tells us that he spent 9 days on ship to Gibraltar, and a further
9 days in hospital in the period (WO12/2089). It is not known if Teresa accompanied him on the same voyage, but if not, she
certainly did make her way to Gibraltar shortly after. On November
9th 1862, Alexander was promoted to Corporal. In the same quarter he again spent 6 days hospitalised, and a further
7 days between April and June 1863.
history by Haswell notes that the battalion was in Gibraltar and the West Indies
between 1862 and 1865. In the Daily News of 14 JAN 1863, it is recorded
that the officers, non-commissioned officers and men of the 2nd battalion in Gibraltar donated £52
to a relief fund known as the Mansion House Committee, though it is not known for what purpose the fund existed ("The
Mansion House Committee").
On September 7th 1863, Alexander's daughter Florence
was born in Gibraltar, Calum's and Jamie's great great great grandmother (see below). In
the birth record, Alexander was again recorded as a Corporal. In the muster roll from October to December, it would
appear that Alexander was in fact stationed at the hospital, as he is noted there as absent from the record in the first
two musters, though on this occasion he was on duty there, and not ill (WO12/2090).
their posting at Gibraltar, the 2nd Battalion was sent out to Bermuda in the
West Indies. Haswell's history states on p.105 that "In June 1864 the 2nd Battalion went out to Bermuda",
confirmed also by the service digest which states the following:
Orders were received
during the month of June 1864 for the Battalion to be held in readiness to relieve the 39th Regiment stationed in Bermuda
and on the last day of that month the Battalion embarked on board HMS “Orontes” and sailed
the same day. The “Orontes” arrived at Bermuda on 15th July
and the disembarkation took place the day following. The Headquarters consisting of the Band and nos 1,2, and 5 companies
proceeded to St George’s, and the remaining portion of the Battalion to
rolls confirm that they sailed on the last day of June, the whole voyage lasting some 17 days (WO12/2091). Then all Hell broke
Shortly after arrival
an Epidemic of Yellow Fever broke out in Saint George’s which spread through
the Islands and raged with great severity during the months of August, September and October. On 1st
August the Headqurters were removed to Ferry Point and were there encamped. On 9th and 24th September detachments making a
total of 9 officers and 252 men were conveyed by HMS "Galatea" to Halifax and
returned thence in January 1865. The mortality of the battalion from this scourge was as numerated in the margin.
whilst the regiment was there, a major epidemic of yellow fever broke out, claiming many lives within the battalion. The following
is the Pall Mall Gazette's description of what happened next:
In July the 2nd Regiment came in from Gibraltar. The fever had been three weeks in the place, and the health
officer urged the instant removal of the troops to healthy quarters. He urged in vain. There they were kept, crowded together,
seventy men in one hospital thrust into the room of thirty, "ejecting black vomitover one another as they lay on the floor,"
till Dr Barrow came from Canada with eight more doctors. He hired blacks to do the nursing, whch had been attempted by orderlies
who died by scores under the work: and gradually managed to get the men out into camp, but not until in Georgetown alone 107
out of 705 had died, besides 14 officers and four of the Canadian doctors. This is bad enough; but it is scarcely a third
of the loss at the same place in 1843: and when we remember that a soldier costs us (on the lowest calculation) £150, it is
perhaps worth while to give up St. George's and permanently camp out in Bermuda.
The account is corroborated with another account of the fever in
the Freeman's Journal of October 31st 1866, though this mistakenly dates it to mid 1865 rather than to mid 1864:
Yellow fever appeared in Bermuda towards the end of June, 1865.
On July 15 part of the 2nd regiment, 753 strong, arrived from Gibraltar. Seven companies were encamped at Bowz Island, and
three "at the Navy Tanks, within half a mile of St. George's, now known to be a tainted district." On the very same day a
sergeant of the 39th Regiment (which the 2nd Regiment came to relieve) was smitten with yellow fever; and on the next day
Dr. Hunter, health officer, called on the commanding officer of the 2nd Regiment and urged him instanttly to move his
men away from the inspected spot. But doctors' advice in matters sanitary is usually not favourably received, and was
here once again fatally unheeded. The 39th Regiment happily sailed for England. On the 23rd of July appeared the first case
in the fated 2nd Regiment, and from that day forward the men fell thickly; and then only, and too late, when the regiment
had become "thoroughly tainted," was it moved to Ferry Point; and yet only half moved, for six officers and fifty-six men
were left behind. Moreover, incredible as it may appear, in defiance of all warnings, the headquarters, the commissariot,
the civil departments, and the general hospital establishments, where the sick were treated, were all left behind, in the
very focus of the disease. Fast as the orderlies in attendance on the sick were struck down fresh men were sent in from the
camp, until at last, such was the drain of life, that "there seemed a probability of the whole force being expended." At this
period it was that Dr. Barrow appeared on the scene. On the 23rd and 25th of August two medical officers arrived from Halifax,
and seven (including Dr. Barrow) from Canada. Dr. Barrow at once took the position of principal medical officer. He found
all the medical men of the force prostrated and worn out. There had been 238 cases of fever, and 65 deaths, of which
53 had occurred at St. George's. There were 100 sick in the general hospital, and 13 were admitted on the day of his arrival.
His first act was to remove from St. George's every man "he could induce the military authorities to send into camp, and to
hire blacks to carry on the service lately performed by soldiers." He was met with "difficulties", and there had been all
along "difficulties"; but, happily, they did not stop him. His description of the general hospital is fearful. Seventy men
were thrust into a place fit only to hold 35. And this is what he tells us:- "The sick were not only lying around the
wards, but may be said to have covered the entire floor." Professor Maclean... thus sums up the matter:- "There lay these
unhappy men on the floor of the pesthouse, ejecting black vomit over one another." Dr. Barrow went at once into this
scene of horrors with his brother officers. They pitched tents and brought the sick into them; yet still did the epidemic
rage and the sick pour in. All the medical officers who had come from Canada, including Dr. Barrow, were struck down, and
four of them died. At St. George's 290 cases were treated and 107 died. Of the officers who were left there 30 took the disease
and 14 died. Professor Maclean, commenting on these facts, says that "it would be difficult, even in the lamentable history
of Crimean blunders and disasters, to find anything more painful than this."
Several additional articles in the Manchester Guardian and
other titles confirm that Haswell's date is in fact correct. Haswell also gives a brief summary of what happened:
These fearful epidemics with their huge toll of men's lives attacked every unit stationed in the West Indies and
were a greater test of a regiment's discipline and morale than any battle. The odds against survival were shorter and there
was no prospect of honour or reward. The Queens survived their many ordeals in the Carribean with, as Davis says, the highest
credit and an enhanced reputation (p.105-106).
But what happened to Alexander? The muster rolls show
that he was in fact based on Bermuda throughout the epidemic. The strain of the proceedings clearly also affected him, as
not only was he hospitalised in the first quarter of 1865, he was also placed in confinement on 26th and 27th February, and
thereby missed the monthly muster. He lost 56 days good conduct pay at 2d per diem, from February 1st-26th, and was demoted
once more to Private (WO12/2091). The disciplinary issues continued, as in the subsequent quarter he recived 59 days
good conduct pay at 1d per diem, and 32 dyas good conduct pay at 2d per diem, but was again deducted 3 days of this from May
1st-3rd. For the rest of the year's records Alexander is noted as being away from the muster in both September and October.
sadly it appears that he may have bene permanently hospitalised at this point, and so it may be that he did in fact succumb
to yellow fever, but at a later stage than the main epidemic. From January 1st - 31st 1866, he was awarded 31 days good conduct
pay at 1d per diem. This appears to have been an act of generosity on behalf of the military authorities, as Alexander's time
in the battalion was finally to come to an end.
The regimental muster roll for Bermuda in Feb/Mar 1866
(WO 12/2093) states that Private Alexander Halliday died there on 31st January 1866. There is no indication
as to whether Alexander was killed by yellow fever. A list of those from the regiment killed by yellow fever is
held by the West Surrey Archive, and has been checked. His name is not on it, and so the cause of death for the moment remains
a mystery. The final entry gives us a lot of information on Alexander's enlistment. He was said to have joined with the
Queen's on August 27th 1859, and his place of birth was noted as the East Indies. His previous trade when enlisted is noted
as 'none', confrming that he must have signed up as a boy. After all debts were paid off, his widow Teresa was given just
There was one final happy event on Bermuda however. On
August 29th 1866 his widow Teresa gave birth to their son, initially christened William, but later found in the 1891 census at Aldershot
and in other records as Alexander William.
Following the post to Bermuda, the 2nd battalion's movements are
again recorded by Haswell, though the date of return is in fact incorrect, as the 2nd battalion did not return until late
The 2nd Battalion came home in the following year, 1865 (sic), and served in Ireland and returned
to Aldershot in 1869. In 1877, after another tour in Ireland, it moved to Malta and thence, in 1878, to India (p.106).
Alexander pops up in two more records many years later. In his daughter Florence's
marriage certificate on 7 JUN 1881, he was recorded as deceased, and interestingly, his description was noted as 'bandmaster',
most likely alluding to his role with the band in the 14th Regiment. In the record of his son Alexander's second marriage,
to Bridget Cardiff in 1935, he was again noted as a 'Band Sergeant of Army'.
(With thanks to Rosemary Morgan, Simon Fowler and Emma Jolly)
Child of WILLIAM HALLIDAY and TERESA MOONEY:
b: 7/9/1863 d: 18/9/1911
Florence was Calum's and Jamie's great great grandmother - see below.
Alexander William Halliday
b: 16/8/1866 d: 1/6/1947
Alexander was born on August 16th 1866 on the island
of Bermuda in the West Indies, and baptised by the Reverend J. Bullock, Chaplain to the 2nd Battalion of the 2nd Regiment
of Foot. His father was recorded as Corporal William Halliday, and his mother Teresa. In
his birth certificate, he is simply listed as William, but in all subsequent records within which he is found,
he is noted as Alexander William (GRO Regimental Birth Indices 1761-1924, 1866 2nd regt. Vol. 996 p.15).
Alexander's early years remain something of a mystery just now. His father, a member of the 2nd battalion
of the 2nd Regiment of Foot, passed away on Bermuda in January 1866, seven months before he was born. It seems that his
mother returned to Ireland shortly after his birth and remarried to another corporal within the same battalion of the regiment,
William John Burns, in a ceremony in Nenagh, Tipperary. After this the family seems to have moved to Dublin by 1871, and then
briefly to Belfast by 1873-1874, before a return to Dublin.
The next actual record we have naming Alexander
is in 1878. Aged just eleven years and eleven months Alexander William Halliday was admitted to the Royal Hibernian Military
School in Dublin on August 1st 1878. The enrolment
record is held at the National Archives (TNA: WO 143/22)
and states his date of birth as August 16th 1866, his height as 4 foot 4 inches, his weight as 4 stone
8 pounds, his chest as 24.5 inches, and his religion as Established Church (Church of Ireland). By the time he left he
had gained one mark for good conduct, and no trade had been learned by him.
Aged just 13 years and 11 months, Alexander then officially joined the 48th Brigade on August 17th
1880, with his attestation witnessed by Staff Sergant Michael Hogan. His medical just a few days earlier in Dublin on
the 13th provides another description of him again at this age. He was apparently aged 14, was four feet and 9 1/4 inches
tall, had a chest measurement of 27 inches, a fresh complexion, blue grey eyes, brown hair and was Church of England by way
of religion. He had a scar on the back of his neck and one on the back of his right hand.
On his Military History Sheet, his next of kin are reported as Father
William (actually his step-father), Mother Trease (i.e. Teresa), and sisters Florence
and Sarah (Sarah was a daughter of William and Theresa, born in Dublin in 1871).
By the 1881 census, a few months later, we learn that Alexander was in Aldershot, England, and noted
as a 14 year old private in the 1st Battalion of the 2nd Regiment of Foot, the Queen's Royals. The entry lists him as
having been born in Bermuda, and as unmarried.
From 1879 to 1891 the 1st Battalion was based in both England and Ireland, and we therefore find him
yet again in the Aldershot barracks ten years later, this time as a 23 year old Lance Corporal in the battalion, and still
unmarried. In this record, his birthplace is recorded as the West Indies, and his regiment as The Queen's Royal West
Surrey Regiment. This tallies with his Military Service record which shows that he was based from August 13th 1880 to April
8th 1892 at home, a service period of some 11 years and 239 days. The record also noted that he passed a certificate
of education on September 28th 1882 (3rd class).
From April 9th 1892 to January 16th 1895, Alexander is noted as having served on the island of Malta,
in the Mediterranean, a service period of two years and 283 days. During this spell he gained a 2nd class certificate of education
on November 5th 1892, and was promoted to the rank of sergeant on June 5th 1894.
From January 17th 1895 to November 27th 1902, things became a little more heated. In this period,
Alexander saw military combat on at least three instances. He served at Tirah in 1897 and 1897, and in the north west frontier
of India. He was awarded the India Medal 1895 with clasp for Tirah 1897-98 and another for service at the Punjab frontier
Alexander remained with the 1st Battalion until his eventual discharge on December 16th 1902. His
character upon discharge was noted as "exemplary" on the Military History sheet, and he had received five good conduct badges.
By now he was noted as being aged 36 years and 2 months old, and some 5 feet 6 inches tall. His intended place of residence
was 52 Benburb Street, Dublin. Under the question "Special qualifications for civilian life", Alexander was noted as being
a gymnastic instructor for eleven years, with a further note saying he was "an excellent man in every way". He was discharged
at Gosport after 22 years and 126 days service.
On 5 JUN 1908 Alexander, noted as a motorman of full age from 1 Eccles Street, and son of Alexander
Halliday, married house maid Margaret Hughes, daughter of Michael Hughes, gardener,
and of 5 Pembroke Road. The wedding took place at the Roman Catholic Church of Haddington Road, by Father Henry Lube, with
the witnesses noted as John Downes and Annie Jordan (Source: GROI M 1908 Group Reg ID 2088854 Dublin South).
By the time of the 1911 census, Alexander was recorded as resident at 3 Synnott Row, in the Parliamentary
division of College Green, in the Inns Quay Ward. He was again noted as a motorman, and as a pensioner from the 'infantry
of the line'. His birthplace was noted as Bermuda, West Indies, and living with him in the house was his 39 year old wife
Margaret (Hughes), from County Dublin, and his 75 year old mother, now noted as Teresa Burns,
implying that she had remarried. The census entry also interestingly notes that Alexander had converted to Roman Catholicism,
the original religion of his mother.
In 1913, Alexander became involved in one of the most famous industrial disputes in Irish history.
An article in the Freeman's Journal of September 24th 1913, entitled 'Tram Men Prosecuted for Deserting their Cars' notes
the trial of 25 tram workers, 15 of them conductors, who had suddenly abandoned their trams at various locations across Dublin
city centre on the morning of August 26th. Amongst those prosecuted was Alexander Halliday. However, this was not just a simple
case of wilful abandonment - it was the initial opening act of what was soon to become known as the Dublin Lockout.
The Lockout was a bitter struggle that lasted from August 26th 1913 to January 18th 1914, and involved
some 20,000 workers in dispute with 300 firms. At the heart of the strike was the battle for workers to be allowed to unionise.
In 1908, trade unionist Jim Larkin had established the Irish Transport and General Workers Union (ITGWU) in a bid to try to
improve the lot of the ordinary working man in Ireland, in a country riddled with poverty and high rates of disease in the
city slums. In 1911, along with James Connolly, Larkin had also established the Irish Labour Party. On August 13th 1913, the
chairman of the Dublin United Tramway Company, William Martin Murphy, sacked fifty tram workers for belonging to the ITGWU,
with another 300 dismissed a week later. On August 26th, tram workers in the union, including Alexander, walked out on strike
to protest, with the strike soon spreading to other industries. At his trial on September 23rd the judge noted that the tram
workers were each liable to a fine of 40 shillings, but perhaps sympathetic to their plight, he fined them just 3 shillings
The employers responded with a lockout, and 'scab' labour was brought over from Britain. On August
30th, the situation deteriorated further, when after a rally planned by Larkin at the ITGWU headquarters was banned, two protesting
strikers were killed on Sackville Street (now O' Connell Street) in a police baton charge. The lockout continued until January
of the following year, with much rioting and many casualties. Although the workers were eventually forced to return to work,
many businesses had gone bankrupt because of the dispute. Never again would Irish employers try to break a trade union as
they had previously done in Dublin. For Connolly, however, there would be a worse ending - he was executed in 1916 for participation
in the Easter Rising. Following the Lockout, Alexander continued to work on the trams.
Alexander's wife Margaret sadly passed away on October 15th 1930, aged 58,
as recorded in the Irish Independent:
HALLIDAY (nee HUGHES) (Dublin) - October 15, 1930, at her residence, 3
Synnott Row, N. C. Rd., Margaret, beloved wife of Alexander William Halliday; deeply regretted by her sorrowing husband, relatives
and friends. Funeral to-morrow (Friday) after 10 o'clock Mass at St. Peter's, Phibsboro', to Mount Jerome, R.I.P.
Alexander remarried on 6 MAY 1935 to Bridget Cardiff, a spinster resident at 1 Synnott
Place, Dorset Street, and daughter of Edward Cardiff, painter. Alexander was noted as being resident at 3
Synnott Row, North Circular Road, a widower, employee of the Tram Company, and son of Alexander Halliday,
a 'Band Sergeant of Army'. The witnesses were John Frierton and Elizabeth Bowes, and the wedding took place at the Roman Catholic
Church of Berkely Road, Dublin (Source: GROI M 1935 Group Reg ID 1403545 Dublin).
In the 1939-40 electoral register for Dublin, available at www.dublinheritage.ie, Alexander is still recorded at the same address, along with Bridget (noted as Brigid
Alexander's wife Bridget, noted as Bridget F. Halliday, died on 28 JAN 1945
at the Mater Hospital, Dublin, aged 53. Her home address was noted as 3 Synnott Row, North Circular
Road, and the cause of death was congestive heart failure and mitial regurgitation, with the informant to the Dublin registrar being
E. Glynn, inmate at the Mater Hospital (Source: GROI D 1945 Group Reg ID 2521904 Dublin).
Alexander died aged 81 on 1 JUN 1947 at St. Kevin's Hospital, Dublin, he being noted as 'late of 3
Synnott Row'. The cause of death was bronchitis, arterio-sclerosis and cardiac decline. The informant to the registrar a day
later was an inmate at the hospital (Source: GROI D 1947 Group Reg ID 2734123 Dublin).
Alexander's death was also noted in his Chelsea Pension records. He passed away at St. Kevin's
Institution on James Street, Dublin, on June 1st 1947 (aged 81), the cause having been bronchitis, arterio sclerosis
and cardio respiratory failure. The document notes that he had been in receipt of an annual pension of £13 17 s and 5d.
His death was also recorded in the Irish Independent newspaper on Tuesday, June 3rd 1947:
HALLIDAY (Dublin) - June 2 1947 at St. Kevin's Hospital. Alexander William
Halliday, late of 3 Synnott Row. North Circular Row; deeply regretted by Marie, relatives and friends, R.I.P. Remains will
be removed to-day (Tuesday) at 5.45 o'c to St. Francis Xavier's Church, Gardiner Street. Funeral to-morrow (Wednesday)
after 9 o'c Mass to Mount Jerome.
Alexander died testate, and the Calendar of Grants and Probate of Wills
and Letters of Administration (online at www.nationalarchives.ie) from 1947 states the following short summary:
HALLIDAY ALEXANDER W. (981) 22 July
Probate of the Will of
ALEXANDER W. HALLIDAY late of
3 Sinnott Row North Circular
Road Dublin retired Tramway
Official who died 1 JUNE 1947
granted at DUBLIN to Margaret
Effects £105 18s 3d
NB: Following Alexander senior's death, Teresa Mooney remarried William John Burns,
and had one further daughter:
Sarah Jordan Burns
b: 1/3/1871 d: Jul-Sep 1895
Florence Teresa Halliday
7/9/1863 - 18/9/1911
Florence was Calum's and Jamie's three times great grandmother.
Florence was born in Gibraltar on 7 SEP 1863, as noted in the Army Births and Baptisms Register 1761-1924,
held by the General Register Office (GROE&W:Army1761-1924 - Vol.996,p.11). She was baptised on 11 OCT 1863 by the Reverend
T. Gardiner C. F. The birth and the baptism were both certified by Lt. & Adjutant G. Woodard.
Following her birth, Florence's parents were sent to Bermuda with the 2nd Battalion of the 2nd Regiment
of Foot, the Queen's Royal Regiment. Her mother was certainly still there in August 1866, when Florence's brother Alexander
was born, but it is now believed that her father died in January 1866 on the island, cause as yet unknown.
Florence married Edwin Graham in Barrow on Furness on June 27th 1881 (GROE&W: Barrow Vol 8e, p.1193). In her marriage certificate Florence
was noted as residing at 317 Brick Cottages, Old Barrow, and as being a 17 year old servant. Her father was recorded as William
Alexander Halliday, a bandmaster, who was deceased. The marriage took place at Trinity Presbyterian Church, Barrow-in-Furness, the
minister was the Reverend William Ferguson, and the witnesses were Samuel and Annie
Lunn (GROEW: M 1881 Q2 Vol.8e p.119). (Eng 1881 census: Barrow, ED23, RG11, piece 4291, folio 55, p.11). Florence
herself could not be found in the same census.
In the next few years, Florence and Edwin lived in Partick in Scotland, and in England, before returning
to Belfast (see the Grahams (1) page). In 1901, the couple were recorded as living at Upper Canning Street in Belfast.
|Florence's headstone at City Cemetery, Belfast
In the 1911 census for Belfast, Florence was noted as 48 years old and as having been born in Gibraltar. She could
read and write, was a member of the Church of Ireland, and had an incredible seventeen children, of whom nine had died in
infancy by that year. She was also noted as having been married for some thirty years, confirming the marriage in 1881.
Sadly, Florence passed away at 67 Duncairn Gardens, Belfast, on September
18th 1911, aged just 48. The cause of her death was chronic nephritis, basically a kidney disease, and it is noted in
her death entry that she was Church of Ireland by way of religion.
Edwin's great niece Renee Fisher (nee Graham) has grave
papers in her possession which show that Florence was buried in Belfast's City Cemetery two days later, in the same grave
plot (Section B, Class 6, lair 513) as her daughter Florrie who predeceased her in 1905. A burial record obtained
from Belfast City Council also shows that the funeral was held after 11am on the 20th, although the exact time is not stated.
The inscription on the headstone, which still survives but which has been knocked over onto its back, reads
The Beloved Wife of
Died 18th Sept 1911
Also FLORRIE their daughter
Died 3rd Jan 1905
CHILDREN of FLORENCE HALLIDAY and EDWIN GRAHAM:
b: 1893 d: 23/8/1942
Calum's and Jamie's great great grandfather - see Graham (1) page.
b: 1894 d: 3/1/1905
Matilda Graham - unconfirmed